Oil crises, the ever-increasing price of fuel and the rapidly approaching crisis of a shortage of non-reproducible energy sources make humanity look for new alternative energy sources. One of these sources is wind energy, which is an environmentally friendly, free and inexhaustible source of electricity. Thus arose wind power, the essence of which is to convert the kinetic energy of wind into electricity. The basis of the new energy industry is wind generators of various kinds.
- 1 What is a wind generator, device and principle of operation
- 2 Pros and cons of wind generators
- 3 Tools and materials needed to create a wind generator
- 4 Wind generator construction technology
What is a wind generator, device and principle of operation
Today, wind generators are considered one of the most promising systems capable of producing free electricity in any quantities.
A wind generator is a unit that turns the power of the wind into electricity.
It consists of:
- masts. It is necessary for mounting on it the generator and the wind wheel. The higher the mast, the stronger the wind blows and, accordingly, the more electricity the generator generates;
- generatorinstalled on the mast. It produces alternating current, the strength and voltage of which depends on the speed and stability of the wind;
- wind wheel with blades. Оно служит для приведения в движение вала generator благодаря использованию кинетической энергии ветра;
- controller. Преобразует переменный ток generator в постоянный для зарядки АКБ, а также используется для управления параметрами ветроустановки: поворот лопастей, зарядка АКБ, защитные функции
- rechargeable batteries (battery). Designed to accumulate electricity in windless periods and to stabilize the output of the generator voltage, which depends on the strength of the wind. Thanks to the battery, the voltage for power supply of objects is stable and does not depend on the wind;
- inverter. Designed to convert DC from battery to AC, used to power most electrical appliances.
Принцип его работы основан на превращении кинетической энергии ветра в электрическую. У классических ветровых генераторов ветровое колесо имеет три лопасти. Оно укреплено на ступице, которая жестко связана с ротором generator. Вращаясь, ротор generator вырабатывает three phase alternating current, which the controller converts to a constant voltage, going to charge the battery. Passing through the battery, the current simultaneously charges it and then goes to the inverter, where it is converted into alternating single-phase current 220 V, 50 Hz. If the current from the wind generator is low, then its deficiency is compensated by the battery and, conversely, if a lot of it, the excess accumulates in the battery.
By their design features distinguish wind generators with horizontal or vertical axes of rotation. The first type of generators is most widely used, although a constantly blowing wind is necessary for its operation.
According to the generated power, wind generators are divided into household (power from 300 W to 10 kW) and industrial (capacity of several mW).
Advantages and disadvantages of wind generators
Regardless of the design, wind generators have their advantages and disadvantages.
- environmental friendliness;
- inexhaustibility of the source of electricity;
- wind energy competitiveness compared to non-renewable energy sources;
- the possibility of providing electricity in hard-to-reach places where its supply is difficult;
- they take up little space, which allows them to be placed together with other objects.
- dependence on wind strength and direction;
- high price;
- low return on investment (more than 10 years);
- the creation of the work of noise harmful to living organisms;
- interference with television and certain communication systems;
- damage to birds when placing wind generators in their nesting places and on migration routes.
Depending on the design, wind generators have inherent advantages and disadvantages to this type of design. For example, for generators with a vertical axis of rotation, low efficiency is characteristic (KPD is just 0.2), but at the same time they can generate electricity with very low wind.
Tools and materials needed to create a wind generator
Для создания ветрового generator необходим следующий минимальный набор инструментов и материалов:
- a set of keys and drills;
- knife or lozenge;
- thin sheet metal or durable plastic;
- bolts and nuts;
- материалы для изготовления generator (двигатель, редуктор).
Wind generator construction technology
Простота конструкции ветрового generator позволяет собрать его самостоятельно. Для этого необходимо знать основы физики и электрики и обладать навыками обращения с бытовым инструментом.
Изначально необходимо определиться с требуемыми характеристиками ветрового generator и уже под них искать scheme of his device. На сегодняшний день существует множество вариантов постройки ветрового generator своими руками. При выборе варианта необходимо помнить, что ветровой генератор должен удовлетворять следующим основным requirements:
- security from heavy wind.
Manufacturing technology of the simplest wind generator is to consistently perform several basic operations.
On the hub of the bicycle wheel blades are attached (from three to six pieces), made of duralumin or hard plastic. The blades must be polished so that their front part is semicircular and the back part is pointed. The longer the blades, the greater the power generated.
As a generator, you can use engine from any household appliances. When choosing it, you should be guided by the following rule: the more volts per revolution - the better. The motor rotor is rigidly connected to the hub with blades fixed on it.
The tail and the generator are fixed along the edges of the tail boom made of pipe, which should be уравновешены. The tail is made of sheet metal or rigid plastic with a size of 300 × 300 mm of any shape. To protect against external influences the generator is covered with a protective casing.
All this construction gathers on the shelf welded from corners. Then this shelf is installed on the end of the mast so that the whole structure can be easily rotated depending on the wind direction (for this purpose ball bearings are most often used)
The mast is a pipe fortified with stretch marks. Inside it are electrical wires connecting the generator to the battery and an inverter.
The power generated by such a wind generator is quite enough for the autonomous power supply of a private house.